Research into LNG as a marine fuel saw a strong growth in recent years, but no study has analysed in a structured way, the level of convergence among the findings presented in the wide range of studies conducted by research centres, classification societies, ship engine manufacturers and consultancy firms. In order to fill this gap, we performed a systematic review to synthesise the findings of 33 published studies on the use of LNG as a ship fuel. The aim is to obtain a much broader understanding of the current perspectives and challenges for applying LNG as a bunker for ship propulsion.
Often wharf owners find that they have insufficient crane girder rated capacity and only consider strengthening options. Before proceeding with expensive strengthening, owners should study the capacity of their existing crane girders. For a variety of reasons, crane girders are often stronger than their rated capacity due to early design methods and tools, cautious designers, or both. Using modern methods, engineers can often justify increased girder rated capacities without expensive strengthening upgrades.
Sheet piles, used as retaining walls, wharfs, and piers, are typically made of unprotected carbon steel (CS). This type is affordable and the general corrosion rate (wastage) is predictable. Despite the long and successful use of CS sheet pilings, there are reports of localised corrosion of CS pilings that have been identified as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) ie. corrosion that is a result of the presence and activities of microorganisms.
In recent years the integration of renewable energy and alternative fuels within the industrial and transport sector has been greatly encouraged. However, despite important efforts, the total share of such greener alternatives remains modest considering the production and consumption energy mix on a European level. José Andrés Giménez, research and development project manager, Valenciaport Foundation discusses the project ‘Green Technologies and Eco - Efficient Alternatives for Cranes and Operations at Port Container Terminals’ (GREENCRANES) which aims to be an innovative action which contributes to the improvement of energy efficiency of port container terminals.
When sea-going vessels slow down to enter port, their rudder effectiveness and manoeuvrability become restricted by the loss of water flow or water speed across their rudder. The paradox of slowing down to enable safe navigation of highrisk areas, while losing effective steering control at the same time is what drives the demand for tugs.