In PTI's 55th edition we pay particular attention to how ports on both the East and Gulf Coast of the US are readying themselves for the expansion of the Panama Canal in two years time. Furthermore, Malte Humpert and Andreas Raspotnik of the Artic Institue discuss how the rapidly melting Arctic sea ice could transform the polar region into a navigable seaway in the coming years.
Papers in this edition:
Canada is the world’s third largest producer of natural gas, with approximately 97 percent produced from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which spans Alberta and British Columbia. Kitimat LNG, which draws on the basin’s supplies, represents Canada’s first LNG export terminal. Kitimat LNG, which draws on the basin’s supplies, represents Canada’s first LNG export terminal. Co-owned by Apache Corporation, EOG Resources and Encana Corporation, Kitimat LNG is located on Bish Cove, approximately 650 kilometers north of Vancouver.
As port equipment and operations have adapted to and incorporated more advanced processes, the sector’s ability to place competent, well-trained staff familiar with the technology has not kept pace. Sophisticated operating systems demand that in-house teams possess a wider range of knowledge and ability than ever before, which means that the sector relies heavily on young graduate talent. Howard Flint discusses upcoming challenges this reliance poses for the industry, and looks at how recruitment process outsourcing could provide a more efficient recruitment model for ports.
Most ports around the world are governed following the landlord port authority scheme. Under this management model, terminal operations are awarded to private companies using long-term concession agreements that are signed between the (public) port authority and the private terminal operator. South African ports constitute an exception to this rule. All major ports in South Africa are owned and operated by state-owned Transnet, and its respective divisions such as the port authority Transnet National Port Authority (TNPA) and terminal operator Transnet Port Terminals (TPT).
Gateways play a strategic role in connecting, organizing and managing freight flows between regional markets and therefore impacting upon the global economy. Rail and highway systems have long been the main support for the North American freight distribution market. This conventional system has now been expanded by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), as well as by the globalization of production.
The remote controlled Ship to Shore (STS) cranes are making a major breakthrough in container terminals. The introduction of remotely controlled STS cranes in container terminals is not only expected to bring remarkable improvements in productivity, but also provide the crane operators with a more comfortable, ergonomic working environment thus allowing them to improve their performance.
Creating a new, modern cruise ship terminal in a Caribbean paradise where the waters are filled with unique, vulnerable marine life is no easy task. Still, this was the task at hand. And in early 2011, thanks to extensive planning and innovative solutions, the project became a reality. The new J$180 million cruise ship port in Jamaica, able to accommodate the newest and largest class of cruise ships was delivered.
Ports around the US are scrambling to prepare for expected growth from one of the largest transportation projects in decades and what could be an economic game changer – the expansion of the Panama Canal. Expanding port capacity will be most critical along the US Southeast and Gulf coasts, according to a report issued recently by the US Army Corps of Engineers. As the closest port of call to the Panama Canal, Port Miami has forged ahead with three projects to handle post- Panamax cargo ships: dredging to -50 feet of water, restoring on-dock rail and building a tunnel to provide trucks direct highway access.
The most often quoted reasons for using thermal cameras rather than traditional CCTV CCD colour or IR cameras include long distance covert detection of humans and vehicles in total darkness and up to several kilometers range in daylight. This is combined with the ability, depending on the type and wavelength of the detector used, to detect targets through a variety of obscurants, including smoke, fog, water vapour, and glare from the sun. These attributes have long been applied to the military and defence markets but are now finding serious application in the commercial security sectors for perimeter security.
Across the world, there is an increased demand for advanced simulator-based tools that can assist tug operators and ports in determining the best type, size, number of tugs and the strategies to be used for a given tug operation.
Our article in the summer 2012 edition of Port Technology International, ‘Seismic protection of quay cranes’, addressed the application of friction dampers in quay cranes. This is the second article of a three-part series on crane seismic issues. This article focuses on seismic design considerations for new cranes. A third article, to appear in the winter 2012 edition, will address seismic retrofit for existing cranes.
It takes an intricate and well established security infrastructure to protect a port, even a small one such as the Port of West Sacramento. Following strict security regulations from the Department of Homeland Security and US Coast Guard, the port made the commitment to install a new video surveillance system featuring video management software from OnSSI.
Berth space at terminals is a limited resource, and development of new berth space is expensive, time-consuming and may be limited by natural constraints. Effective berth scheduling allows terminals to maximize utilization of their berth space; therefore, berth scheduling is critical to the overall efficiency of the terminal and the associated supply chain.
Arctic sea ice is melting rapidly, and within the next decade the effects of global warming may transform the Polar region from an inaccessible frozen desert into a seasonally navigable ocean. The summer of 2011 saw a record 33 ships, carrying 850,000 tons of cargo navigate the Northern Sea Route (NSR) off Russia’s northern coast. This year’s shipping season may see up to 1.5 million tons of cargo, as Germany’s Alfred Wegener Institute predicts the NSR to be ice-free and passable for ships by early summer.
A landmark first has positioned the Terminal Puerto Arica (TPA) as an innovative and sustainable port and helped it achieve international standards.
Combinations of maintenance and corrosion management approaches have been adopted by Newcastle Port Corporation (NPC) for its wharf and berth structures including doing nothing in some cases. The age of NPC's wharf and berth structures varies from 32 to 63 years. Some are therefore at or beyond their designed lives. However, decades of future service lives are required of the structures.
Diesel emissions are associated with public health risks and new regulations have been established to require reductions of those emissions, not only from diesel-fueled trucks that operate at California ports, but also from ships docked at the ports. Shore power is an emissions-control measure that allows ocean-going ships to run their auxiliary engines while at berth using grid-based power, thereby providing a mechanism to reduce diesel and other air pollutants from ships while they are at berth.
For many years, loading chutes have been used for loading dry bulk products into different vessels, such as tanker trucks, open trucks, wagons, ships and barges. The strength of the loading chute has always been its flexibility and versatility, as well as the fact that it is able to load all kinds of dry bulk materials, under virtually all conditions, and in nearly all known applications, ie. in ports, in refineries, in cement and power plants, and in grain terminals.
Many ports and maritime installations around the world run the risk of explosive ordnance (EXO) contamination as a legacy of conflict, whether as a result of military action, or loss of munitions during transhipment. One such port that has recent experience of this form of contamination is the Port of Albany in Western Australia.
The safe mooring of a ship is of utmost importance. The mooring process however appears to be the forgotten link in the nautical chain. This became evident when the European harbour masters decided to make a video about strengthening the whole nautical chain through a greater awareness of all its links.
Dry bulk terminals play a vital role in the chain of transportation linking producers with end users. Their efficiency is influenced by a range of internal and external factors, not least initial design. Evaluation of a newly built or existing facility’s performance by independent experts with hands-on terminal management experience frequently results in enhanced operational efficiency. Terminals play an essential role in the logistical chain. They determine the efficiency and thus the cost of the chain. They are the buffer, the safety valve. If a terminal is not performing well, it has exponential consequences. In most cases this is reflected by the demurrage generated at that specific terminal. The productivity of bulk terminals is determined by the infrastructure, movable equipment available and the organization. If put into practise by well-trained operators following the right procedures, and backed by a management team able to find the right balance between internal and external factors, it can be successful.
In terminals all over the world, old cranes are the main reason for standstill and high service cost. Additionally, the energy costs for these cranes are much higher than necessary because of inefficient motors. More and more terminal operators are recognizing this and would ideally like to exchange the cranes. However, the cost to replace them with a new crane, is often too high. Based on this, the operators modify the existing cranes and build new, modern and efficient equipment into the old cranes. This allows a higher number of containers to be handled, minimizes standstill time, and lowers energy costs.
New technical developments usually involve improving earlier technology, or by borrowing precedents from related technologies to produce a useful product. Future crane technology may be based on developments from bridge technology and may include cantilever bridge spans. Operators may remotely control cranes via telecommunications lines and play stations while computer programming would allow automated cranes to greatly increase the number of containers being transferred per single movement and within a specified time duration.
The post-Panamax era has inherent impacts on ports and harbors worldwide. In most of Europe and the Far East, the major ports have already been dredged and prepared for post-Panamax shipping vessels. The same cannot be said of the US. Although the larger West Coast US ports can handle post- Panamax vessels, the bottleneck is the most active “all water routes” to and from the East Coast and Gulf Coast of the US to Asia. The ports on those routes are feeling the most pressure to expand. These East Coast and Gulf Coast ports tend to be insufficiently deep to receive the newest post-Panamax ships and such ships must be light-loaded to access these ports, a timeconsuming and costly exercise.
One of Russia’s largest diversified business groups, Basic Element, has recently completed the construction of the Sochi Imeretinsky Port – crucial to ensuring construction materials make their way to the 2014 Winter Olympics site.
Video technology has become an indispensable element of the security arrangements at ports. German developer and manufacturer Dallmeier has unveiled a new approach to video surveillance of large areas: the Panomera® multifocal sensor system.
The Dawei Sea Port (DSP) is the centerpiece of a multibillion dollar infrastructure and industrial development project in Myanmar. Major elements of the project include a new port and industrial zone located in southern Myanmar (near the town of Dawei) and highway and rail systems connecting the port to central Thailand, to provide access to transportation infrastructure to South China and other regions within Southeast Asia.
The potential benefits of the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a marine fuel are widely recognized. In summary, the use of this fuel would allow the elimination of emissions of sulphur compounds (SOX), reduction of emissions of nitrogen compounds (NOX) and particulates, and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (CO2). From a port operational aspect, this is positive as it embraces the mitigation of local air quality issues and assists with the reduction of the carbon footprint of the port.
The Port of Dover is a significant asset locally, regionally and for the UK. It has enormous national and international importance as one of the UK’s main trade gateways with continental Europe. Goods to the value of £80 billion (about $129 billion) pass through the port in any one year. The Port of Dover is one of the world’s busiest international ferry ports, handling almost 13 million passengers and around 5 million vehicles annually. It is also the second busiest UK cruise port and the fourth largest UK port for fresh produce imports. It complements these core activities with an award winning marina. The port supports around 22,000 jobs, many in the local community.
Portsmouth International Port has seen some big changes over the last year. Not only has the name changed, but its new terminal is now fully finished and operational.
A modern container handling terminal requires more and more use of automated technology. Aspects like efficiency and impact on the environment set difficult targets for engineering a terminal. Two years ago the need arose for a new generation of automatic guided vehicles (AGVs) that could fully meet today's standards and values, with a focus on life cycle cost reduction, improved reliability and less impact on the environment.