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Edition 27

The 27th edition of PTI takes a look at the impact on the ports and terminals industry of the Roll-on Roll-off (Ro/Ro) industry's endless growth and includes an article by the EcoPorts Foundation who provide an overview of their R & D Environmental Management System project. Click here to subscribe.

Papers in this edition:

Offshore terminals for the transportation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Demand for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is rising, particularly in the residential and commercial sectors of developing and more developed countries. The use of cleaner liquid and gaseous fuels is expected to continue to increase as populations grow and total demand for energy in these regions rises proportionally. At the same time, oil and gas prices have risen to historic levels improving the economics of liquefied gas resulting in stronger transportation demands for LPG. With a number of LPG transportation projects already in the planning stage, many more are expected in the coming years.

The Portfields Initiative: Revitalising port and harbour communities

“Portfields” is a federal interagency effort focused on the redevelopment of brownfields in port and harbour communities with an emphasis on development of environmentally sound port facilities, environmental restoration and community revitalisation. Reuse of abandoned or underutilised properties in port communities can provide jobs and spur economic development by enhancing port infrastructure and improving the flow of commerce. In addition, port redevelopment can be done in a manner that protects human health, protects and restores critical habitat, ensures homeland security and provides a better quality of life for community residents. Portfields is led by the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), along with the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Economic Development Administration, and the U.S. Maritime Administration.

Bulk Fertilizer Cargos: Operations at Ports

Millions of tonnes of substances (raw materials and products) are transported in bulk by sea across continents for the fertilizer industry. Some of the materials are classified as dangerous for transport. This article considers their nature, potential hazards and classification.

Anatomy of a port financing transaction

Billion dollar investments are no longer uncommon in worldclass ports today, where five years ago the average port investment was less than a tenth of this amount. Is this a self-destructive, metoo phenomenon with each port vying to outdo its competitor(s) in adding capacity to attract a diminishing number of ever larger container carriers, or are there fundamental economic drivers fuelling this investment spree?

Safe harbour: Transforming CCTV surveillance at Belfast Harbour

Belfast Harbour has transformed its CCTV system in response to robberies and 9/11, and more security improvements are on the horizon. Sam Burke, the port’s chief officer, told Lawrence Cohen about the developments. Belfast Harbour’s sophisticated CCTV system has been attracting praise from high places. Port inspectors from TRANSEC, the security division of the UK Department of Transport, recently described the system as one of the best they’ve even seen.

Enhancing container terminal productivity: A co-maker approach between carriers and operators

Ongoing globalisation and the subsequent outsourcing of production to low cost countries have led to a steep increase in container volumes. According to research carried out by Drewry Shipping Consultants the global container volume has grown on average 10.5% year-on-year in the period between 1995 and 2004. Traffic to and from the Far East grew 12.7% over the same period. The response from carriers to this increase in demand was obvious; huge new-building programmes have been initiated.

Application of approximate performance indicators for master planning of large ports

The art of a port planner is to make a satisfactory master plan on the basis of unsatisfactory (or at least insufficient or uncertain) data. The use of performance indicators may help in the planning process, but obviously that should not replace the execution of detailed studies on the aspects concerned, whenever possible. To the knowledge of the author no expert system has been developed yet which could replace the imagination of an experienced port planning and engineering team to generate the most attractive concept on the basis of a given set of requirements and local conditions.

AIS makes waves: Accessing consolidated and accurate AIS information through the internet

Ever since AISLive started, industry, as well as governments, military and international authorities have shown a positive interest in what AISLive is doing. They see the benefits of having access to a consolidated source of accurate and timely information which can be supplied in a cost effective and efficient manner. The popularity of the website, once referred to as the “nautical hit of the year”, is undisputed with over 65,000 registered users and on an average day approximately 9,500 users are on-line. Amongst the growing number of AISLive users are ship owners, tugboat and salvage companies, pilot organisations, port authorities, VTS organisations, ship’s agents, mooring companies, and also law enforcement.

A green perspective: New Green Port Policies expand environmental stewardship role

There is a new way of thinking at the Port of Long Beach, and everyone stands to benefit. For every Port-area worker, every resident, every seal, gull and fish, this new “green” ethic promises a cleaner harbour, soil and skies. The new ethic is part of the Port of Long Beach’s recently approved “Green Port Policy.” This ambitious policy establishes guidelines for how the City of Long Beach Harbour Department will protect the community and environment from the negative impacts of Port operations.

Standardisation of container security seals

Approximately 90 percent of the world’s trade moves in containers. At any given time this equates to billions of dollars worth of inventory moving in freight containers either via truck, train, ship or barge. Last year an estimated 100,000,000 TEU moved in international trade. It is estimated this will increase to over 150m TEU by 2010. ISO TC 104 (Technical Committee 104, Freight Containers) has been actively working with the World Customs Organization on container seals and in a Joint Working Group (JWG) with Technical Committee 122 (TC 122) on the use of Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) for marking and tracking at all levels within the transportation chain. This article addresses specifically ISO’s work on container seals and their use on freight containers.

The changing nature of port consultancy: A view of the future

The introduction of private investment has dramatically affected port operations world wide and perhaps the United Kingdom can claim to be the instigator of this process. However, whereas in the UK we have gained a variety of privatisation models, all in action alongside one another, the wider world has been able to learn from our experience and to select some of the more practical and successful solutions for their own industry. The changes in the organisation and regulation of ports have led to changes in the way consultants are used in the industry and may lead to further changes in the future.

An integrated approach to vessel berthing

From the 1960’s onwards, there have been continually evolving developments in the size and complexity of oil and gas carrying vessels. This has resulted in the need for terminal owners to pay far more attention to potential risk factors when planning to handle these larger ships.

Integrating commerce and security at the world’s ports

There is an inherent conflict of interest between key players at the world’s sea ports. Port operators, manufacturers, shippers, and other commercial supply chain stakeholders are focused on maintaining the flow of commerce while customs, security personnel, and governing bodies emphasise the need for heightened security.

Emerging energy supplies for North America: The LNG renaissance

The North American natural gas market is characterised by strong and growing demand, an extensive pipeline grid with numerous options for transportation and trading, and dwindling domestic supplies which are keeping pace with demand only through increased rates of drilling.

AIS: A tool for VTS

VTS performs three basic tasks relevant to the provision of its services – information (data) collection, evaluation and dissemination. Within the evaluation of the information, overall situation awareness is developed, and the various tools used by VTS assist in providing this picture of the waterway. In addition to these basic tasks, VTS can provide an ideal location for collection of statistical data that can be used in the overall provision of aids to navigation services.

Global port congestion: No quick fix

World container trade is driven in the first instance by the growth of output and of consumption. However, in addition to economic growth there are several structural factors, which also impact upon global container trade, so that even in periods of economic difficulties the volume of container traffic can continue to rise. For the resilience in demand, the container shipping market has primarily to thank the globalisation process, with manufacturing moving away from high cost production areas to regions with a much lower cost base. This process has been ongoing over the past two decades.

Trying to separate fact from smoke: A critical review of cargo security

The cargo security initiative is in the development and concept stages. Smoke and mirrors skew the discussions because recommendations presented by many of the experts asked to participate lack the core expertise required to recommend remedies against unforeseen threats. Many of these experts and officials lack a practical understanding of the physics behind seal security and cargo terrorism.

Using experience to assess required tug power

The optimum use of tugs can have different interpretations depending on the economic priorities of the parties involved. The shipowner for example may want the fastest operations which in turn may lead to stronger tugs, the port on the other hand may not have the repeated use for very large tugs so that the owners cannot recover their investment.

Project Sustainability Management for design-build projects

Achieving sustainable development will be a long journey, spanning many decades. It requires a complete overhaul of our existing systems, technologies and infrastructure in a manner that is workable in both developed and less-developed countries.

Optimising a layered port security system

Today, there are many different security inspection technologies available. These technologies may be combined in an attempt to achieve a better result. How the systems are combined strongly affects the results achieved, and different applications may require different combinations. This paper will examine several examples.

Tideworks Technology fortifies Ro/Ro operations

When Manzanillo International Terminal-Panama, S.A. (M.I.T.) in Colón, Panama, the largest container facility in Latin America handling some 1.5 m TEUs in 2004, decided they needed to provide more support to their increasing Ro/Ro business, they looked to Tideworks Technology® Inc., a leading provider of fullservice terminal management and planning software solutions. M.I.T. implemented Tideworks’ Mainsail Ro/Ro module, part of the Mainsail Terminal Management System®, and today the facility is handling more than 55,000 units of rolling stock per year, rapidly becoming an important transshipment facility for Ro/Ro cargo in Latin America.

Port of Amsterdam: A dry bulk logistics gateway to Europe

The Port of Amsterdam is one of the major players in The Netherlands, as logistic gateway to Europe. Together with Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (a short 20 minutes drive away), the logistic hub Amsterdam has a unique combination of having both a major international airport and seaport. With the excellent geographic location of the deep-sea port, Amsterdam connects the hinterland with an extensive network of waterways, road, rail and air-connections. No other European port has such a short navigation course to the Rhine-river and the industrial and consumer markets in North West Europe (160 m consumers within 500 km).

UK Dredging expands technical capabilities

UK Dredging (UKD), Associated British Ports’ (ABP) dredging arm, has moved from strength to strength since its establishment in 1996. Established to meet ABP’s maintenance-dredging requirements and undertake third-party works, UKD, based at ABP’s Port of Cardiff, is supported by a flotilla of six dedicated vessels.

Accelerated low water corrosion on steel structures in marine environments

The International Navigation Association (PIANC) Working Group 44 (WG44), of which one of the authors (Ashok Kumar) is chairman, has recently submitted the final report on their findings on ALWC. The most common form is limited to a horizontal band around low water, although it can be found occasionally in patches, and extends down to bed level.

Standards for Hydrographic Surveys: A chronology

The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has developed a series of standards, one of which is ‘Standards for Hydrographic Surveys’ (S-44). The primary concern of the IHO and its member hydrographic offices is safety of navigation.

Rehabilitating Aceh’s ports

When the tsunami struck on December 26th, 2004, the devastation it wrought was nowhere worse than in the province of Aceh in Sumatra, Indonesia. So far, 126,000 people are confirmed dead, but the full total will probably never be known. As well as destroying lives, the tsunami also destroyed many key infrastructure facilities.

Funding ports in the Gulf

The unprecedented levels of economic activity in the Middle East coupled with an increasing and youthful population, give rise to the need for additional capacity and modernisation of the region’s roads, rail systems, airports and ports. The opportunities for private sector involvement and public private partnerships, which bring the prospect of efficient infrastructure development, are starting to gather pace.

Container seals: What does PAS ISO 17712 mean to you?

In recent years, there have been few security issues as contentious as the ongoing debate over container seals and container security. The recent container seal guidelines issued by US Customs and Border Protection (US CBP) for Customs- Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) importers may have established new container seal standards, but they did little to end the debate. Seal manufacturers, customs brokers, security professionals, US importers, government regulators, and other members of the international trade community continue to argue about the ‘ideal’ container seal and related best practices and regulatory schemes.

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