Research Paper: Automation and Electric Drives
In recent years there has been moderate annual growth in global container handling volumes – reaching around 700 million TEU in 2017. Meanwhile, the capacity of the world container vessel fleet has increased considerably to over 20 million TEU. Because of this, shipping lines are increasingly operating in global alliances, giving them scope to optimize their services and increase their buying power.
For container terminals this has resulted in noticeable reductions in handling rates, larger operational peaks and more idle time in waterside operations. Shipping lines and inland transportation companies are requiring terminals to increase their handling performance and provide predictable, shorter turnaround times.
Further to this logistics are growing more complex. The greater power of the shipping....
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