Technical Papers - VTMIS & Aids to Navigation (ATON)
Port waterways, which are the routes for ships entering and leaving a port, have become one of the bottlenecks restricting port development. A common question for decisionmakers is whether to build a new waterway or expand an existing one-way waterway to a two-way traffic waterway. Due to the complexity and randomness of port systems, numerical methods sometimes fail to obtain solutions to waterway problems. Simulation technology has been generally applied in port waterway management because of the advantages of dealing with such complex systems. Considering the high cost of construction and dredging for waterways, decision-makers will be more confident in their decisions when the entire process of ships’ entering and leaving a port through waterway can be simulated. Our research team at Dalian University of Technology has developed a Port Waterway Simulation Model (PWSM) to simulate the whole process of ships transiting the waterway and handling at berth.
As a result of increasing pressure to improve supply chain predictability, uncertain containership berthing times in ports is one of the main challenges the industry is facing today. Innovative ways of providing visibility and transparency to port operations, along with the various initiatives from port authorities and other governmental entities, are accelerating the process towards new ways of doing things in the berth management field. So let’s start with who’s who in the berth management game. Although there are different models, we will focus on those ports with one or more container terminals, where the terminal is the entity dealing with the different ocean carriers to assign priorities and allocate the berth position on a day-to-day basis. This happens regardless of whether the port authority eventually controls the standard berthing windows or approves individual berth positions, which is more of a formality than an operational acting role. This scenario is also applicable to the port authority that owns and controls the terminal, but where the internal roles are somehow separate.
offer a unique view of our oceans, seas and coasts. Satellites, and their on-board sensors, on the one hand provide a routine, cost-effective, wide area surveillance covering all maritime zones. On the other hand they can hone in on precisely-targeted locations for monitoring specific operations to gather information, e.g. in response to emergencies. In the ports world, satellites can be used to gather in-detail geographic and bathymetric information during the in-planning phase of offshore construction. They might also be used by the port at regular intervals, for example, for monitoring port operation or in order to optimize ship navigation. Potentially, they can obtain a detailed and timely view of an area in order to identify hazards to marine traffic, like floating containers. Satellite-based services also have great potential to support the maritime and marine communities beyond ports.
The Sea Traffic Management Validati on (STM) project will contribute to a safer, more efficient and environmentally friendly mariti me sector by developing services based on informati on shared by mariti me stakeholders which is updated in real time. The STM concept is a shared informati on environment with the underlying rati onale that bett er overall decisions can be taken which will in turn result in increased effi ciency and improved safety. The STM led by the Swedish Mariti me Administration, has a total budget of approximately US$50.5 million, of which is 50% co-financed by the EU transport fund Connecti ng Europe Facility/Motorways of the Sea and covers the period 2015-2018. More than 50 partners from 13 countries are involved in the project. The project will demonstrate the STM concept by using it in two large-scale test beds: one in the Nordic and one in the Mediterranean Seas. The test beds encompass around 300 vessels, 13 ports and fi ve shore-based service centres.
Ports must continually invest in infrastructure and efficient equipment to remain competitive. The largest ports in particular have made substantial upgrades to serve mega-vessels, for example triple-e vessels carrying more than 18,000 TEUs. Port container terminals have been transformed into mega-terminals capable of handling more than 3.5 million TEUs per year.