Technical Papers - Oil, Gas and Chemical Handling
Terminal operators and their customers are concerned more than ever with increasing working capacity, reducing heel, extending service life and reducing emissions and evaporative product loss. This article takes a closer look at these key concerns and considers some potential strategies to improve performance, increase tank working capacity and reduce heel.
The transfer of fluids is the backbone of companies who produce or trade these fluids or provide storage capacity. At the end of the day, it is the fluid flow that keeps the meters counting and that generates the cash flow. This article will discuss the last part of the liquid transfer line: the loading facility; the most critical part of the transfer of fluids between a storage tank and a tanker.
The recent DeepWater Horizon incident has brought into sharp focus the requirement for current, up to date contingency planning, the correct mix of anti-pollution equipment and well practised recovery techniques and crews.
During a mayor offshore oil spill, response teams are facing difficult challenges. Going out to the casualty as quickly as possible is vital, however, collecting the oil in order to minimize the environmental impact of the oil coming ashore is not an easy task.
Vapor recovery for the loading of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the maritime loading arena is a growing development, having been a requirement in the US and Norway for many years and is now becoming commonplace throughout Europe and other countries throughout the world. There are particular developments now in the Far East and Middle East.
As construction gets under way on a major liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminal and regasification facility at Port Freeport, efforts already are afoot to as much as double the size of the project. As construction gets under way on a major liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminal and regasification facility at Port Freeport, efforts already are afoot to as much as double the size of the project.
One of the most dynamic changes facing seaports, worldwide, is the anticipated ‘gold rush’ in the building of new liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping and receiving facilities in ports throughout the world, followed by the traffic these facilities will generate. According to data assembled by Pan EurAsian, the present liquefaction capacity in the world of about 146.5 million tonnes per year will increase to 366.5 million tonnes per year by the end of 2011.
In 1973, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first promulgated the Federal Clean Water Act as 40 CFR 112. The Clean Water Act requires that facilities covered under the USEPA’s SPCC regulations develop and submit a “Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan” that is certified by a professional engineer. The purpose of this regulatio is to prevent the discharge of oil into the United States navigable waters. Because the SPCC Rule includes facilities which may discharge oil into groundwater or storm run-off which in turn may flow into navigable waters, nearly all facilities that store or use oil products are affected.
Loss of confidence in the industry in one part of the world will undermine confidence elsewhere and threaten the reputation of the industry as a whole.These words open the SIGTTO Profile and are as pertinent today as they were 10 or even 26 years ago when the Society was formed. SIGTTO was established in 1979 as a non profit making company, registered in Bermuda and granted observer status at IMO in 1982. SIGTTO membership operates nearly 95% of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) tonnage and terminals and almost 60% of the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tonnage and terminals.
How advanced sensor technology and open source communications standardis are helping Emerson Process Management’s new Raptor tank gauging systems to integrate seemlesly with control rooms to give scaleable, efficient and safe systems for monitoring liquid bulk materials.
World energy use is constantly increasing, and countries around the Baltic Sea are no exception. The energy issue is closely linked with major environmental issues such as climate change, acidification and over-fertilization. Today, the world is dependent on oil as an energy source. It contains many harmful components and replacing it would benefit the environment. Oil is rich in carbon, which means high carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions when combusted. Natural gas is also a fossil fuel, but is a better source of energy in terms of CO2 emissions and environmental effects. The main natural gas producers includes countries such as Russia; the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Iran, Norway, Algeria, Indonesia, and Saudi Arabia.
Feed lines have limited capacity, so the loading and unloading sequence is a time consuming process. To cope with this limitation, often more than one loading arm is connected at the same time, in order to double or triple the capacity.
The capture and recovery of hydrocarbon vapors to reduce emissions of environmentally hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOC) is a vital concern in modern oil and gas production and transportation.
Indonesia has been one of the world’s leading exporters of LNG and LPG for three decades. However, because proven gas reserves are now being drawn down faster than they are being replaced, overseas shipments of both LNG and LPG have peaked in recent years.
The humble storage terminal has long been an essential part of many organizations operating out of ports around the world. However, many view these facilities as a ‘non-strategic’ element of the business, perceived more as a warehouse to store finished product, and not as a potential profit centre. While perhaps not unexpected, this view consequently means many sites have remained bereft of significant capital investment for many years, resulting in an overwhelming number of facilities running on technology and equipment that is, in many cases, long past its best.