Technical Papers - Liquid, Chemical & Gas Handling
Kinder Morgan terminals embarked on a voyage to establish a corporate culture built around safety, quality, and environmental compliance. This ongoing process began several years ago and, though great strides have been made, the simple fact is Kinder Morgan will never be completely satisfied until zero incidents can be claimed.
Terminal operators and their customers are concerned more than ever with increasing working capacity, reducing heel, extending service life and reducing emissions and evaporative product loss. This article takes a closer look at these key concerns and considers some potential strategies to improve performance, increase tank working capacity and reduce heel.
The transfer of fluids is the backbone of companies who produce or trade these fluids or provide storage capacity. At the end of the day, it is the fluid flow that keeps the meters counting and that generates the cash flow. This article will discuss the last part of the liquid transfer line: the loading facility; the most critical part of the transfer of fluids between a storage tank and a tanker.
The recent DeepWater Horizon incident has brought into sharp focus the requirement for current, up to date contingency planning, the correct mix of anti-pollution equipment and well practised recovery techniques and crews.
During a mayor offshore oil spill, response teams are facing difficult challenges. Going out to the casualty as quickly as possible is vital, however, collecting the oil in order to minimize the environmental impact of the oil coming ashore is not an easy task.
Vapor recovery for the loading of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the maritime loading arena is a growing development, having been a requirement in the US and Norway for many years and is now becoming commonplace throughout Europe and other countries throughout the world. There are particular developments now in the Far East and Middle East.
How advanced sensor technology and open source communications standardis are helping Emerson Process Management’s new Raptor tank gauging systems to integrate seemlesly with control rooms to give scaleable, efficient and safe systems for monitoring liquid bulk materials.
World energy use is constantly increasing, and countries around the Baltic Sea are no exception. The energy issue is closely linked with major environmental issues such as climate change, acidification and over-fertilization. Today, the world is dependent on oil as an energy source. It contains many harmful components and replacing it would benefit the environment. Oil is rich in carbon, which means high carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions when combusted. Natural gas is also a fossil fuel, but is a better source of energy in terms of CO2 emissions and environmental effects. The main natural gas producers includes countries such as Russia; the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Iran, Norway, Algeria, Indonesia, and Saudi Arabia.
Feed lines have limited capacity, so the loading and unloading sequence is a time consuming process. To cope with this limitation, often more than one loading arm is connected at the same time, in order to double or triple the capacity.
The capture and recovery of hydrocarbon vapors to reduce emissions of environmentally hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOC) is a vital concern in modern oil and gas production and transportation.
Indonesia has been one of the world’s leading exporters of LNG and LPG for three decades. However, because proven gas reserves are now being drawn down faster than they are being replaced, overseas shipments of both LNG and LPG have peaked in recent years.
The humble storage terminal has long been an essential part of many organizations operating out of ports around the world. However, many view these facilities as a ‘non-strategic’ element of the business, perceived more as a warehouse to store finished product, and not as a potential profit centre. While perhaps not unexpected, this view consequently means many sites have remained bereft of significant capital investment for many years, resulting in an overwhelming number of facilities running on technology and equipment that is, in many cases, long past its best.
Natural gas represents more than one fifth of total primary energy consumption worldwide, and its importance has risen in all parts of the world over the last ten years. Natural gas is a clean and efficient source of energy for a variety of applications and is particularly competitive in power generation.
Europe is entering a new energy landscape. Gas and oil prices have nearly doubled in the last two years. Europe’s import dependency is forecast to rise to 70 per cent by 2030, as our hydrocarbon reserves dwindle and demand rises. Our infrastructure must improve; €1 trillion is needed over the next 20 years to meet expected energy demand and replace ageing infrastructure. And our climate is changing; global warming has already made the world 0.6°C hotter.
At the main Zwick Armaturen GmbH facility at Ennepetal, Germany, you can find the huge 4,000m2 warehouse with over 5,000 valves and ready-to-mount parts, making it one of the biggest stocks of triple eccentric valves in the world. Zwick assures short-term delivery times and flexibility in material selection, even when it comes to materials like duplex, super duplex or bronze.