Technical Papers - Liquid, Chemical & Gas Handling
Research into LNG as a marine fuel saw a strong growth in recent years, but no study has analysed in a structured way, the level of convergence among the findings presented in the wide range of studies conducted by research centres, classification societies, ship engine manufacturers and consultancy firms. In order to fill this gap, we performed a systematic review to synthesise the findings of 33 published studies on the use of LNG as a ship fuel. The aim is to obtain a much broader understanding of the current perspectives and challenges for applying LNG as a bunker for ship propulsion.
The Port of Fujairah was built in the early 1980s as part of the economic development of the United Arab Emirates. Fujairah is situated on the East Coast, just outside the Strait of Hormuz, and with its port being a secure portal to the Gulf; it has seen steady growth over the years.
With an effective date of August 15 2013, the US Coast Guard revised its safety regulations for vessel and facility vapour control systems (VCS) to promote safe operation in an expanded range of activities. Lieutenant Jodi J. Min, senior chemical engineer, Hazardous Materials Division, US Coast Guard, discusses the requirements of these regulations and what effects they will have.
To effectively shut off pipes when handling LNG, valves have to be reliable and their design requires them to be capable of coping with the special physical and chemical properties of this medium. Pump and valve manufacturer KSB has been producing butterfly valves for the entire LNG process chain for several decades and recently, working in co-operation with the companies Technip and Eurodim, KSB has developed an offshore loading system known as Connectis.
In 2004, PTI published an article titled, 'The installation of an aluminium internal floating roof is a sound investment' written Allentech's Bill Grimes. In this article Bill look at how the installation of an aluminium internal floating roof (AIFR) is an even better investment today than it was in 2004. In addition, if you already have an AIFR, he also discusses how a certain type of retrofitting is also a profitable investment.
In this paper, TIC chief engineer John Lieb considers the critical engineering aspects of changing the service or operating conditions of aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) and provides some insight on how the owner/operator can ensure that such evaluations are properly performed.
The challenge of IT systems is that they need to be integrated to be most efficient. APT decided to face this challenge. In 2010 APT was looking for a new integrated IT solution to replace the current system as it could no longer meet the requirements. APT has chosen Implico's terminal management and terminal automation system OpenTAS to provide this one-point solution that fulfils all the needs in terms of planning, loading, inventory management and administration of the terminals.
Long waves, although hardly visible, can cause large problems for moored ships. Over the last decade hydrodynamic research has focused on deep and ultra-deep water developments. However, recent experience with the development of offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals has shown that the issues related to shallow water hydrodynamics are at least of similar complexity.
SHOAL, the pan-European information and communication technology project, has successfully developed and delivered intelligent robotic fish capable of detecting and identifying pollution in ports and other aquatic areas.Luke Speller, SHOAL project leader and senior research scientist at BMT Group Ltd, believes that underwater robots will revolutionise the way we manage our oceans. He describes the key areas of major development and the significant role each of the partners have played in bringing these mechanical fish to life.
Canada is the world’s third largest producer of natural gas, with approximately 97 percent produced from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which spans Alberta and British Columbia. Kitimat LNG, which draws on the basin’s supplies, represents Canada’s first LNG export terminal. Kitimat LNG, which draws on the basin’s supplies, represents Canada’s first LNG export terminal. Co-owned by Apache Corporation, EOG Resources and Encana Corporation, Kitimat LNG is located on Bish Cove, approximately 650 kilometers north of Vancouver.
Together, Implico and TanQuid have achieved their goal and turned three companies with different systems into a single group with a coherent terminal management and automation system. The successful changeover has brought two key benefits: the data at the different storage terminals is comparable and can be managed centrally, and each individual site has gained from having the fully automated OpenTAS solution.
Berth space at terminals is a limited resource, and development of new berth space is expensive, time-consuming and may be limited by natural constraints. Effective berth scheduling allows terminals to maximize utilization of their berth space; therefore, berth scheduling is critical to the overall efficiency of the terminal and the associated supply chain.
The potential benefits of the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a marine fuel are widely recognized. In summary, the use of this fuel would allow the elimination of emissions of sulphur compounds (SOX), reduction of emissions of nitrogen compounds (NOX) and particulates, and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (CO2). From a port operational aspect, this is positive as it embraces the mitigation of local air quality issues and assists with the reduction of the carbon footprint of the port.
The North American natural gas market is characterised by strong and growing demand, an extensive pipeline grid with numerous options for transportation and trading, and dwindling domestic supplies which are keeping pace with demand only through increased rates of drilling.
With Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as one of the key solutions to the rapid increase in energy demand, there is a need to employ integrated planning to deal with the marine transport and terminal design issues for new LNG facilities.