Technical Papers - Liquid, Chemical & Gas Handling
Biomass is one of the fastest growing bulk shipping sectors, fuelled mainly by wood pellets coming in to Europe to replace some of the coal used by existing power stations. Obviously as a fuel it is combustible; the same can be said for coal, but animal feed, grain, sugar and other organic material can behave in the same way.
The Port of South Louisiana is fortunate to sit where it does, sprawling over 86 kilometres on the lower Mississippi River with a high concentration of facilities located along its banks that can access 33 of the nation’s states via the inland waterway system. With low, stable prices on a copious amount of natural gas, it is a crucial element that makes the Port of South Louisiana very attractive to industries looking to locate to the ‘River Region’.
In this article, Chris Stoeck, the Port of Antwerp's Strategy and Analysis Manager looks at the reasons behing the Port of Antwerp's surge in petro chemical growth, specifically liquid bulk. Between 2012 and 2013, liquid bulk handled at the Port of Antwerp rose by 31.9%. In addition to petrochemical and liquid bulk increases at the Port of Antwerp, the industry has also seen a surge in petrochemical volumes within the industry
This white paper looks at the approaches that ports can take to implement small-scale LNG intiatives. When implementing LNG, port infrastructure, the wider supply chain, and end-users must all be aligned, particularly in the safety approach. Conventional LNG practices should be adhered to while ports consider small-scale LNG projects, with an alternative approach being to focus on an economical which passes a suitable quantitative risk assessment
Conflict in various countries is affecting oil and gas supplies, as well as consumer and investor confidence in gas. However, gas has had the highest demand growth, particularly LNG, as this type of gas is supplied through LNG import terminals, instead of pipelines, to increase security. More and more LNG is being traded on a spot-basis and 20% of LNG is sold in this way per year, with new contracts not limited to single destinations
This article looks at safeguarding and regulations surrounding LNG bunkering in Singapore. The safety of LNG is directed by government regulations in order to promote higher LNG safety standards. Correct hiring of LNG staff is also an important aspect in ensuring that these LNG regulations are exceeded. Although Singapore has few competitors in the LNG market, its main focus now is to ensure that safety and reliability standards and regulations are maintained for future LNG bunkering operations
Canaport, a consortium between Irving Oil, New Brunswick and Repsol, is an LNG receiving terminal located in the Bay of Fundy, Saint John, New Brunswick. This article focuses on the steel jacket structure that was used for the LNG terminal's marine foundations. The steel jacket project demonstrated that cost-effective design methods can be not only designed but can be build in a relatively short time-frame.
Emissions regulations are causing ports to not only adapt, but to respond to port users' environmental needs, in order to achieve competitive advantage. LNG is a way for ports to meet those goals, however this is dependent on whether LNG development plans are in line with different market expectations and operational conditions. This article focuses on the development of LNG projects in Northern-Europe and the role their port authorities are playing to facilitate and promote LNG as a marine fuel.
GTT, a french engineering company specialise in the design of LNG containment systems positions itself as a solution provider for the containment of LNG and mobilising highly skilled engineers. This article focuses on the advantages provided by low pressure LNG fuel storage for bunkering infrastructure integrated into port facilities.
FLNG is now technically and economically proven in enabling previously unviable gas fields to be exploited, and while the industry looks to move further offshore, there are lessons to be learned and best practices to be taken from onshore and near shore applications. However, an understanding of the complexities and individual requirements of more extreme offshore environments is key to successful systems development in FLNG docking, mooring and transfer, whether side-by-side or tandem configuration.
The global storage terminals industry faces many challenges, some old, some new; this article will discuss two of them both concerning the merits of mixing in above-ground storage tanks. This article discusses the challenge of handling a variety of different grades of fuel and the necessity to process them into a final specification in the shortest possible time. The other challenge is the necessity to keep tankage free from deposition – basic sediment and water. Failure to handle either of these challenges could spell disaster and huge revenue losses.