While profoundly transforming society and business, digitalization has also brought growing cybersecurity concerns. The maritime business depends increasingly on various IT systems both at sea and in ports
The SmartLog is a blockchain-enabled pilot project aiming to reduce overall cargo unit transport times in accordance with the EU’s targets for road, rail, air and water transport networks in the Baltic/North Sea region. These improvements are being made under its Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T) programme. SmartLog’s testing for the proof of concept began in June, 2017 in Muuga Harbour at the Port of Tallinn, the largest container harbour in Estonia. The project will connect some of the individual operators’ port management systems together with the blockchain solution. This is predicted to bring local operators greater awareness on how their performance ties in with the larger context of port operations, and give them solid insight into how to improve their interactions so that Tallinn Port benefits from the increases in speed and cost savings.
Maritime transport is of central importance for the global economy. In order to ensure the smooth flow of cargo through the seaports, electronic data transmission systems for ports, commonly known as Port Community Systems, are used. Port Community Systems are centralized information and data hubs for ports, integrating and distributing information from various sources for global supply chains. They connect companies and authorities involved in maritime transport, such as shipowners, freight forwarders, terminal operators, carriers, and authorities like customs, in particular by providing interfaces to their systems.
Digitization has brought many great benefits, but it has also enabled a new form of crime: cybercrime. It’s in the news, seemingly daily. Equifax, one of the three largest creditreporting agencies, suffered a breach that may impact more than 143 million consumers. The US Securities and Exchange Commission experienced a software vulnerability that, according to reports, provided a potential basis for illicit stock gains through its EDGAR system. In another high-profile incident, hackers injected a multi-stage malware program into Avast’s CCleaner, a software security program, in what appears to be a targeted attack on some of the world’s largest technology companies in an effort to steal intellectual property.
The ports and container terminals industry is under increasing pressure from growing volumes of trade, aging work forces, limited real estate availability, supply chain integration, regulatory requirements and capital management needs, to name a few. As an infrastructure-rich industry, ports and container terminals must continually manage their critical assets over their lifecycle to remain competitive to the global market. This means that effectively managing these assets is now more a high-profile activity than ever before. Businesses must have strong frameworks and tools to ensure success in operating in these challenging and dynamic environments.
International supply chains are extended and complex. Many logistics service providers have tight margins and limited visibility in the end-to-end success of a shipment. The sheer volume of containers moving around the world creates opportunities for smugglers and counterfeiters. Theft of goods is an obvious problem, but quality loss, socalled shrinkage, or waste due to containers being breached, is less noticeable. For some commodities, a lack of supply chain integrity can result in the loss of sales as buyers of goods only pay for products on arrival due to the risk of damage or loss in the supply chain. Regardless of their role, all supply chain actors have a common interest in preventing delays arising from theft and smuggling through emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology for the port container sector.
In 2011 the Port of Antwerp introduced an electronic release system (ERS), intended to replace the existing system for the authorization of cargo release, through delivery orders or release notes. The system was not mandatory, but was embraced by a number of carriers using the port. These carriers would send computer-generated pin codes via email to cargo receivers or their agents, as well as the port terminal. It was subsequently found that containers had been removed by a sophisticated criminal gang, who were using the containers for the illicit carriage of drugs.
With about 90% of world trade carried by the international shipping industry. Ports are vital to the flow of commodities and capital worldwide. Terrorism that interrupts the flow of goods may have a severe effect on the global economy.
In order to ensure that processes and interconnections don‘t allow malware to shut down operations or allow manipulation of data for illegal purposes, a solution to identify threats along the supply chain is urgently needed
This paper examines the suitability of blockchain and blockchain-based distributed ledger technology (DLT) to the port, harbour, and terminal industries. DLT has the potential to drastically change the world of asset transfer, asset movements and security of data movement
Maritime Security and particularly the security of port facilities and ships assume significant importance in the light of security challenges facing them like terrorism and piracy, among others and consequentially training of maritime security personnel takes centre-stage.