Technical Papers

2016 Update: Automation Fails, But Can Win Big

  Hardback Edition 72 - The Journal of Ports & Terminals - Top 30 Technical Papers 2014-2016     Port Focus,Port Planning, Design & Construction,Container Handling,Terminal Logistics,Global Terminal Operators,Port Planning & Finance,Container Handling,Mega Ship Ready,Automation and Optimisation,Mega Ship Ready,Automation and Optimisation,Shipping,Container Weighing

With the increase in vessel sizes, terminal operators have finally realised that they will no longer be able to handle mega-ships in an efficient and economical manner without some level of automation. Some operators have sought to meet this challenge by ‘automating’ specific portions of their operations; adding CCD-TV, GPS devices, sensors and automatic steering to RTG cranes and straddle carriers

2016 Update: The New Era of Mega-Ports

  Hardback Edition 72 - The Journal of Ports & Terminals - Top 30 Technical Papers 2014-2016     Port Focus,Port Planning, Design & Construction,Container Handling,Terminal Logistics,Port Focus,Port Planning & Finance,Mega Ship Ready,Mega Ship Ready,Shipping

Ports have been ever-present throughout human civilisation, yet only in recent times have we witnessed the emergence of mega-ports. Mega-ports can be considered truly indispensable nodes of the current globalised economic system. But what are mega-ports, who needs them, how does a port become one of them, and should we be glad about them; these are the questions that this paper seeks to address

2016 Update: The Great Freight Rate Race

  Hardback Edition 72 - The Journal of Ports & Terminals - Top 30 Technical Papers 2014-2016     Container Handling,Global Issues,Mega Ship Ready,Carriers

Despite persistent volume growth, in recent years many lines have seen poor financial performance. Underlying adverse market conditions have been the imbalance between supply and demand, causing major fluctuations in freight rates.

2016 Update: PSA: Mega-Terminal Operations

  Hardback Edition 72 - The Journal of Ports & Terminals - Top 30 Technical Papers 2014-2016     Container Handling,Global Terminal Operators,Global Issues,Environment and Sustainability,Mega Ship Ready,Automation and Optimisation

In container shipping, the idea that “big is beautiful” seems to be in vogue. Ever since the invention of the humble container in the 1950s revolutionised the face of global manufacturing, international trade flows have only grown bigger. More than 60% of seaborne trade now is containerised, with Drewry estimating that over 600 million TEU was moved worldwide in 2014.

2016 Update: Handling Mega-Ships

  Hardback Edition 72 - The Journal of Ports & Terminals - Top 30 Technical Papers 2014-2016     Port Planning, Design & Construction,Container Handling,Terminal Logistics,Port Planning & Finance,Container Handling,Mega Ship Ready,Mega Ship Ready,Shipping

Bigger ships mean more moves per call, which in turn means a logical requirement for additional berth capacity, or so conventional wisdom would state. This article contends that upgrading berth capacity alone in order to tackle mega-ships will lead to congestion throughout yard facilities. I believe that additional capacity can be achieved whilst avoiding the spectre of congestion by improving the efficiency of each quay crane at a berth and by increasing the number of quay cranes on one ship

2016 Update: Container Weight Verification: Opportunities and Challenges

  Hardback Edition 72 - The Journal of Ports & Terminals - Top 30 Technical Papers 2014-2016     Port Planning, Design & Construction,Container Handling,Port Planning & Finance,Container Handling

The process within the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to implement the mandatory verification of a container weight before it is loaded on to a vessel is progressing as expected. In a May 2014 meeting, the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) approved draft amendments to SOLAS (the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea) chapter VI to require the mandatory verification of the gross mass of containers, either by weighing a packed container, or by weighing all packages and cargo items and adding the tare mass. The requirements are expected to enter into force in July 2016. It is clearly stated in the draft amendment that the responsibility for obtaining and documenting the container weight lies with the shipper. This means that the burden to comply with the new regulations is not with terminal operators as such, but the situation - where many shippers will not have access to the facilities needed to fulfill their duties - provides terminal operators with an opportunity to offer such a service to shippers.

2016 Update: Digital Container Terminals

  Hardback Edition 72 - The Journal of Ports & Terminals - Top 30 Technical Papers 2014-2016     Container Handling,Terminal Logistics,Automation and Optimisation,Automation and Optimisation,Terminal Focus

We are living interesting times at the dawn of the next industrial revolution: Industry 4.0. How can container terminals be prepared for the era of cyber physical systems, the Internet of Things and the Internet of Services?


2016 Update: Big Data and its Applications

  Hardback Edition 72 - The Journal of Ports & Terminals - Top 30 Technical Papers 2014-2016     Port Planning, Design & Construction,Container Handling,Global Issues,Port Planning & Finance,Container Handling,Automation and Optimisation

In this paper, Rodrigo Garro, Project Manager of gate automation provider Orbita, defines the term 'Big Data' in the commercial space and explains how port operators can apply Big Data practices to ensure that they can plan-ahead to make their operations more efficient and error-free.

2016 Update: RTG Automation

  Hardback Edition 72 - The Journal of Ports & Terminals - Top 30 Technical Papers 2014-2016     Port Planning, Design & Construction,Container Handling,Terminal Logistics,Port Focus,Port Planning & Finance,Container Handling,Automation and Optimisation,Automation and Optimisation,Terminal Focus,Container Weighing

Automated container handling is a recognised megatrend in the container handling industry. It started back in the early 1990s, when the ECT Delta Terminal, Rotterdam, began to use unmanned rail mounted gantry cranes in their container yard, with considerable success. The industry noticed, and investment in new automated terminals grew. Automated container handling technology developed quickly, concentrating on the cranes handling the intermediate storage of containers in the yard

2016 Update: Container Weight Verification

  Hardback Edition 72 - The Journal of Ports & Terminals - Top 30 Technical Papers 2014-2016     Port Focus,Container Handling,Terminal Logistics,Container Handling,Automation and Optimisation,Terminal Focus,Shipping,Container Weighing

There are now less than six months remaining before the implementation of the amended Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) rules requiring that any container to be loaded onto a vessel to which these regulations apply, must have its gross mass determined in advance through weighing – there are no exceptions. While the onus is upon the shipper to fulfil this obligation, the most practical location at which weighing can take place is at the ports and terminals, where lifting is a part of the existing cargo handling process.

Innovation: The Route to Green Shipping

  Edition 71 – The Bulk Issue     Container Handling,Environment, Health & Safety,Container Handling,Environment and Sustainability

Connectainer and Intermodal Solutions is a developer of multimodal logistics and equipment, in this paper the environmental impact of shipping is discussed: we can say that maritime shipping is the most carbon-efficient way of transportation, but, should we be proud of saying that? The International Maritime Organization, in its Third IMO GHG Study 2014, calculated that total shipping emissions in the year 2012 were approximately 938 million tonnes of CO2 and 961 million for greenhouse gases (GHGs) combining CO2, CH4 and N2O.

The Effect of Mega-Ships: Cranes and Infrastructure

  Edition 71 – The Bulk Issue     Container Handling,Container Handling,Mega Ship Ready,Mega Ship Ready

Liftech Consultants Inc. is a consulting engineering firm, founded in 1964, with special expertise in the design and procurement of dockside container handling cranes and other complex structures. Our experience includes structural design for wharves and wharf structures, heavy lift structures, buildings, container yard structures, and container handling equipment. Our national and international clients include owners, engineers, operators, manufacturers, and riggers.

Quay Crane Cracks: An Investigation

  Edition 71 – The Bulk Issue     Container Handling,Environment, Health & Safety,Container Handling,Health and Safety

This paper looks into the issue of premature cracks appearing in container crane booms and girder structures in the TIS container terminal, Ukraine. At first sight, a possible reason for the problem might be using a grab for coal unloading, when the crane structural design was not created with this purpose. In order to check this hypothesis, we have measured stress fluctuation in the critical elements of the crane when operating with spreader and grab. After this, a comparison of the obtained results could be completed.

Automated Freight Terminals: The Next Step

  Edition 71 – The Bulk Issue     Container Handling,Container Handling,Automation and Optimisation,Mega Ship Ready,Automation and Optimisation

About 62% of a vessel’s time in port is relative to operation time, the rest reserved for services, berthing and transit in port. The growth of vessels and the number of movements has led to a huge need to manage operations in a different way, with an integrated view of all equipment, using operational research, intelligent data analysis, and data mining techniques, with quite complex algorithms based on artificial intelligence.

Anti-collision Measures

  Edition 71 – The Bulk Issue     Container Handling,Container Handling,Automation and Optimisation,Automation and Optimisation

Investments in crane technology could be said to fall into two broad, and sometimes overlapping, categories: those that enhance productivity and those that prevent accidents. There are sound arguments why operators should invest in anti-collision technology.