Technical Papers

Grain Handling Systems in Port to Meet Future Food Demands

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

To meet the challenges of future global food production demands, grain handling systems need to minimise waste at every stage in the logistics chain. This is why investing in an efficient system is a shrewd long-term decision by a port. Investments in port-machinery are, by their nature, long-term. The World Bank estimates that from now until 2050, global food production will need to increase by at least 50%, despite a crop yield that may by that time have diminished by 25% due to climate change. Ports, shipping and logistics will come under unprecedented pressure to ensure that as little grain cargo as possible is wasted. Handling facilities which spill, degrade, or otherwise waste these increasingly vital grain cargoes will not be regarded sympathetically – wise considerations for port operators when making their next investment.

  Dry Bulk & Specialist Cargo Handling


Dust Mitigation for Bulk Cargo Using Atomized Mist Technology

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

When unloading bulk commodities from cargo ships, there are several major challenges to consider in mitigating fugitive dust emissions, including: wind velocity, type of cargo, height of the ship, unloading method and the port’s proximity to residential and commercial areas. All of these factors can impact air quality compliance and workplace safety, as well as community relations. As local, state and federal air quality regulations get stricter, the issue of fugitive dust control and resulting runoff of water used to suppress fugitive dust becomes an increasing concern for port operators.

  Dry Bulk & Specialist Cargo Handling


Performance Improvement in Yard Lighting: A New Approach

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

Seaports – the nexus of trade, logistics, and production – are hugely important in facilitating both national and international trade. Recent decades have witnessed a spectacular increase in freight transport worldwide, 90% of which crosses the sea after loading in seaports. Container transport in particular has been influenced by this increase in global sea transport. For example, the maximum capacity of containerships used to be 10,000 TEU, but this increased over a 10-year period to 22,000 TEU. There are, of course, knock-on environmental effects from these developments that must be addressed by the seaports that have to accommodate incoming, outgoing and transiting trade.

  Environment, Health & Safety


Slops Refining: A Sustainable Solution for Ports

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

Slops and sludges are hydrocarbon-rich shipping industry waste, produced in ship engine rooms through purifying fuels, bilge waters from mechanical systems, oily ballast water and tank cleaning waters from tankers. MARPOL Annex I, Regulation 12 defines slops as "the residual waste oil products generated during the normal operation of a ship, such as those resulting from the purification of fuel or lubricating oil for main or auxiliary machinery, separated waste oil from oil filtering equipment, waste oil collected in drip trays, and waste hydraulic and lubricating oils." Millions of tonnes of maritime hydrocarbon residues are created every year, and it is estimated that they account for between 1% and 2% of maritime bunker volumes consumed annually. All of this waste needs to be disposed of in line with IMO and EU regulations, and Ecoslops presents a way to refine the waste into valuable fuel.

  Environment, Health & Safety


Using Full-Mission Ship Simulation For Ultra Large Container Vessel Feasibility Studies

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

Over the past ten years, there has been explosive growth in the size of ships in general and containerships in particular. The ship-to-channel ratios now provide less margins of safety, and present significant challenges to port designers, pilots, tug companies, and marine operations. Full-mission ship simulation, also known as FMSS, is gaining acceptance as a cost-effective way to evaluate whether transits are safe and under what conditions. Additionally, simulations can be of great assistance in the preliminary design process to reduce dredging costs and increase port efficiencies.

  Port Planning, Design & Construction


Safeguarding the EU’s Sea Area With Frontex Border Staff Training

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

Frontex was established in 2004. Before that, ad-hoc centres administered border management. The reason for establishing Frontex was an increased focus on migration, asylum seekers and security within the EU. With an increased workload on the Southern sea borders, a need for international co-operation increased. One of Frontex’s tasks is to ensure safe navigation in coastal areas and ports. Frontex arranges three or four Maritime Border Surveillance Officer-courses every year. Aboa Mare’s co-operation with Frontex on training began five years ago. Frontex training is now mainly conducted as simulator exercises, focusing on various aspects of managing sea areas. The expertise of both parties has since developed and deepened. The aim of the training was to enable controlling and safeguarding the movement of people in the maritime regions of the EU.

  Port & Maritime Training


Port Simulation Determining Waterway Expansion Project Timing

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

Port waterways, which are the routes for ships entering and leaving a port, have become one of the bottlenecks restricting port development. A common question for decisionmakers is whether to build a new waterway or expand an existing one-way waterway to a two-way traffic waterway. Due to the complexity and randomness of port systems, numerical methods sometimes fail to obtain solutions to waterway problems. Simulation technology has been generally applied in port waterway management because of the advantages of dealing with such complex systems. Considering the high cost of construction and dredging for waterways, decision-makers will be more confident in their decisions when the entire process of ships’ entering and leaving a port through waterway can be simulated. Our research team at Dalian University of Technology has developed a Port Waterway Simulation Model (PWSM) to simulate the whole process of ships transiting the waterway and handling at berth.

  VTMIS & Aids to Navigation (ATON), Waterfront and Marina



The Certainty of Berth Uncertainty

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

As a result of increasing pressure to improve supply chain predictability, uncertain containership berthing times in ports is one of the main challenges the industry is facing today. Innovative ways of providing visibility and transparency to port operations, along with the various initiatives from port authorities and other governmental entities, are accelerating the process towards new ways of doing things in the berth management field. So let’s start with who’s who in the berth management game. Although there are different models, we will focus on those ports with one or more container terminals, where the terminal is the entity dealing with the different ocean carriers to assign priorities and allocate the berth position on a day-to-day basis. This happens regardless of whether the port authority eventually controls the standard berthing windows or approves individual berth positions, which is more of a formality than an operational acting role. This scenario is also applicable to the port authority that owns and controls the terminal, but where the internal roles are somehow separate.

  VTMIS & Aids to Navigation (ATON), Waterfront and Marina


Satellite Services Benefits for Ports and Shipping

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

offer a unique view of our oceans, seas and coasts. Satellites, and their on-board sensors, on the one hand provide a routine, cost-effective, wide area surveillance covering all maritime zones. On the other hand they can hone in on precisely-targeted locations for monitoring specific operations to gather information, e.g. in response to emergencies. In the ports world, satellites can be used to gather in-detail geographic and bathymetric information during the in-planning phase of offshore construction. They might also be used by the port at regular intervals, for example, for monitoring port operation or in order to optimize ship navigation. Potentially, they can obtain a detailed and timely view of an area in order to identify hazards to marine traffic, like floating containers. Satellite-based services also have great potential to support the maritime and marine communities beyond ports.

  VTMIS & Aids to Navigation (ATON)


Safer, Faster and Cheaper Port Stays: The Sea Traffic Management Validation Project

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

The Sea Traffic Management Validati on (STM) project will contribute to a safer, more efficient and environmentally friendly mariti me sector by developing services based on informati on shared by mariti me stakeholders which is updated in real time. The STM concept is a shared informati on environment with the underlying rati onale that bett er overall decisions can be taken which will in turn result in increased effi ciency and improved safety. The STM led by the Swedish Mariti me Administration, has a total budget of approximately US$50.5 million, of which is 50% co-financed by the EU transport fund Connecti ng Europe Facility/Motorways of the Sea and covers the period 2015-2018. More than 50 partners from 13 countries are involved in the project. The project will demonstrate the STM concept by using it in two large-scale test beds: one in the Nordic and one in the Mediterranean Seas. The test beds encompass around 300 vessels, 13 ports and fi ve shore-based service centres.

  Automation and Optimisation, VTMIS & Aids to Navigation (ATON)


Chinese Seaport Governance: Reform and the Influence of Broader Policies

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

The past 65 years have brought significant changes to China’s economic and political landscape and the Chinese society at large, influencing the degree to which China’s ports are centrally governed. This paper explains the early stages of port organization which saw port governance centralized, and which has since been succeeded by a stage in which broader economic policies have increasing impact.

  Global Terminal Operators


Industry Impacts of Australian Port Privatization

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

For three decades port governance reform has been a strategy adopted by governments around the world to achieve various goals, such as improving efficiency, encouraging private investments, and reducing governments’ financial burden. Following commercialization and corporatization of port authorities in 1990s, six major Australian ports have been privatized from 2011, including the Port of Brisbane, Port Botany, Port Kembla, the Port of Newcastle, the Port of Darwin and the Port of Melbourne. The main drivers for the privatization include the government’s policy of recycling capital for funding other infrastructure projects, the budgetary goal of reducing state governments’ debts, and seeking growth in private investments in public infrastructure.

 


Freight Rates: Where is the Container Industry Headed?

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

Containerships continue to grow in size, as evidenced by MOL’s recent order for 22,000 TEU megaships, carriers, shippers, ports, and governments are beginning to ramp-up orders to deal with the financial, logistical and legal ramifications of such ships. Much as carriers and shippers need to work as partners in moving cargo so each side earns a profit and reliability of vessel schedules remains a joint priority, ports and port operators also need to be brought into the same equation. The larger vessels employed today bring an incredibly complex choreography with them into each port; just last week in the Port of Los Angeles, the Maersk Evora loaded and unloaded a record total of 24,846 TEUs between October 17-22, 2017 which Maersk is claiming is a new world record for a single port call. It’s more than just loading and unloading boxes: One needs to visualize the planning needed to coordinate the rail, trucking, chassis availabiliti es and customs documentation.

 


Vertical Container Warehouses: A Solution for Future Container Ports?

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

The size of container ships has risen significantly in recent years and it is projected that even larger ships will call at US ports in future. Although these huge containerships bring many benefits for shipping companies such as economies of scale, they present challenges for ports such as the requirment for deeper channels and larger cranes. Research into solutions for container storage is presented in this paper.

  Port Planning, Design & Construction


Able Seaton Port’s Development of a Heavy Duty Quay for Offshore De-commissioning

  PTI Edition 76 - Cyber Risk & Security

Able Seaton Port is located on the northeast coast of England and lies at the head of Seaton Channel, a tributary of the River Tees which in turn faces onto the North Sea. The facility was purchased by its current owners in 1996, and since that time Able UK Limited has extensively developed the site to provide new heavy-duty quays as well as new workshops and offices. Permitted uses have also been extended, through a complex planning process, to enable, among other things, the decommissioning of marine structures and vessels. Its geographical location, and planning status, has enabled Able to provide, in particular, on-shore decommissioning services for redundant North Sea oil rigs.

  Port Planning, Design & Construction