While profoundly transforming society and business, digitalization has also brought growing cybersecurity concerns. The maritime business depends increasingly on various IT systems both at sea and in ports. The Global Positioning System (GPS) and Electronic Chart Display and Information System are particularly vulnerable systems.
Thus, ensuring the reliability of marine IT systems and their data is becoming increasingly important. Reports on cyberattacks, malicious intrusions through the digital environment to access delicate information, against various societal and business targets have appeared regularly in the media.
The maritime sector has been exposed also, but information about these incidents remains scant. This article aims to depict these events in more detail. The events are divided based on their targets. In practice, such categorization is a simplification, as attacks may simultaneously involve multiple targets.