The notion of an ‘automated container terminal’ suggests a very limited involvement of humans in the daily running of operations, however despite this conception, the reality is far from that. The truth is that automated terminals heavily rely on human influence to keep the fleets of driverless machines running, as well as to deal with unpredictable exceptions. This is because the handling of exceptions is poorly supported by today’s control systems (TOS and ECS), meaning a process controller requires mastermind skills. Information is divided over multiple systems rendering it (too) complex for process controllers to do their job effectively.
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