The IMO's stricter sulphur emission standards are likely to have a profound impact on the maritime industry. With this in mind, PTI's sixtieth edition pays a particular focus to the challenges ahead if LNG is to become the shipping fuel of the future and if this is the most viable option for shipping lines vying to meet these new regulations. Elsewhere, we have contributions form Drewry, Liftech and a host of key industry experts, engineers and analysts.
Papers in this edition:
With the global ports industry taking substantive steps to operate more sustainably and cost-effectively, leading shore power expert with the Cavotec engineering group, Luciano Corbetta, describes how shore power, or ‘cold ironing’ systems are increasingly being adopted, and adapted for port authorities, shipping lines and ship owners.
A rising tide lifts all boats, but if some of them have short anchor chains they will eventually sink as the water continues to rise. Latin American economies have benefitted significantly from strong economic growth in Asia, driven primarily by China. Those who have been able to develop infrastructure to support freight movement have benefitted more than others. However, further investment and development is needed, particularly in Brazil which has lagged behind other countries in terms of infrastructure and benefitting from growth in global trade. Ports will have to be able to handle larger ships and inland connectivity needs to improve. If these investments are made then Latin America, like Asia, could potentially see very strong economic growth.
For 25 years, Cimbria has produced and installed more than 13,000 Moduflex branded loading chutes worldwide. The chutes are being used for loading anything from cobber concentrate over fly ash and cement to fertiliser, grain and food stuff. They are used for loading ships and barges, flatbed trucks and dumper trucks, stockpiling, tanker trucks and boats as well as train wagons. In many cases, the chutes are loading not only one specific product, but many products through the same chutes – for instance in port terminals.
Research into LNG as a marine fuel saw a strong growth in recent years, but no study has analysed in a structured way, the level of convergence among the findings presented in the wide range of studies conducted by research centres, classification societies, ship engine manufacturers and consultancy firms. In order to fill this gap, we performed a systematic review to synthesise the findings of 33 published studies on the use of LNG as a ship fuel. The aim is to obtain a much broader understanding of the current perspectives and challenges for applying LNG as a bunker for ship propulsion.
Often wharf owners find that they have insufficient crane girder rated capacity and only consider strengthening options. Before proceeding with expensive strengthening, owners should study the capacity of their existing crane girders. For a variety of reasons, crane girders are often stronger than their rated capacity due to early design methods and tools, cautious designers, or both. Using modern methods, engineers can often justify increased girder rated capacities without expensive strengthening upgrades.
In recent years the integration of renewable energy and alternative fuels within the industrial and transport sector has been greatly encouraged. However, despite important efforts, the total share of such greener alternatives remains modest considering the production and consumption energy mix on a European level. José Andrés Giménez, research and development project manager, Valenciaport Foundation discusses the project ‘Green Technologies and Eco - Efficient Alternatives for Cranes and Operations at Port Container Terminals’ (GREENCRANES) which aims to be an innovative action which contributes to the improvement of energy efficiency of port container terminals.
Sheet piles, used as retaining walls, wharfs, and piers, are typically made of unprotected carbon steel (CS). This type is affordable and the general corrosion rate (wastage) is predictable. Despite the long and successful use of CS sheet pilings, there are reports of localised corrosion of CS pilings that have been identified as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) ie. corrosion that is a result of the presence and activities of microorganisms.
When sea-going vessels slow down to enter port, their rudder effectiveness and manoeuvrability become restricted by the loss of water flow or water speed across their rudder. The paradox of slowing down to enable safe navigation of highrisk areas, while losing effective steering control at the same time is what drives the demand for tugs.
José García de la Guía, port community system manager, Valencia Port, discusses how the main traffic in Valencia Port is containerised cargo (78 percent). There are other types of cargo such as solid bulk, liquid bulk and general cargo, including roll on- roll off (ro-ro) cargo and car traffic. As the result of this growth, Valencia Port has had continuous growth of container traffic in the last two decades and it is now leading Spanish and Mediterranean container ports rankings, 5th in Europe and 30th in the world. Alongside this, José García de la Guía discusses the Valencia's Port Community Approach and how it is leading to better efficiency within the port.
The quest for performance measurement has always been a key issue for ports. Port managers, whether port authorities or terminal operators, need to organise complex processes in an efficient and effective way in order to find the best ways to capture value for their customers and address the concerns of stakeholders. Improved efficiency within ports does not necessarily lead to improved competitiveness, for competitiveness is also a product of effectiveness in delivering desired services to both customers and users. If a terminal operator wishes to improve its cargo-handling efficiency so as to improve berth utilisation through faster vessel turnaround, it may also improve its effectiveness as vessel time at berth decreases and the customer may be more satisfied with the shipping line’s performance. However, if that terminal operator improves its asset utilisation by leaving more vessels at anchor so as to minimise its own downtime, its asset utilisation is improved but the customer’s service expectations may not have been met. In this case, efficiency has come at the expense of effectiveness.
Captain Terry Hughes, FNI FRIN, Founder, International Maritime Consultancy discusses how in September the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) organised their first ever seminar on simulation in vessel traffic service (VTS) training in Wageningen, The Netherlands. The seminar was kindly sponsored by MARIN, NNVO and the Port of Rotterdam and was attended by 50 delegates representing 20 countries. The primary aim of the seminar was to provide guidance to training organisations and their simulation staff in organising and developing VTS simulator training courses. It was intended for, not only those who already have experience, but also for those who have no experience whatsoever in VTS simulation.
There can be little argument that the international cargo handling industry stands on the verge of one of the most significant changes since the advent of containerisation. Until now, cargoes have been shipped based on the container weights declared on the advance booking information provided by shippers. Vessel stowage plans and port operations are typically based on these pre-declared weights which can vary significantly from the actual mass of the cargo transported. The consequent risk to the health and safety of seafarers and port operatives is clearly apparent.
Efficiency, cost control, and enhanced visibility are more important than ever in today’s increasingly complex terminal environment. At the same time, marine terminal operators must function in a challenging regulatory climate and support new and more rigorous expectations for industry best practices. There are two key requirements for meeting these objectives. The first is to have instant access to vessel information, including both current and historical locations and events. The second is that this information be more than simply ‘points on a map’ so that operators can use the data for business intelligence and analysis, and to improve operational efficiency, decision-making and reporting.
Portsmouth International Port is the gateway for much of the fresh fruit eaten in the UK, with 60 percent of all bananas sold in the country having come through the port. Mainland Market Deliveries Ltd (MMD) is a specialist importer and handler based at Portsmouth. The company provides shippers with a fully integrated turnkey service, including stevedoring, ship and customs agency, handling, storage and onward distribution. MMD realised that new distribution software could bring big benefits to not only the company, but also its clients all over the world.
As the terminal operating system (TOS) is managing all relevant information, the TOS is in a key position to drive terminal efficiency and success, playing a major part of the business profit model. New intelligent procedures based on methods from applied statistics and operation research benefit from TOS information in a smart way.
Automated container handling is a recognised megatrend in the container handling industry. It started back in the early 1990s, when the ECT Delta Terminal, Rotterdam, began to use unmanned rail mounted gantry cranes in their container yard, with considerable success. The industry noticed, and investment in new automated terminals grew.
Bulk terminals around the world have been dealing with solid biomass for some time on a small scale. However, with the expectation of the use of bioenergy growing and consequently the international solid biomass trade market. It is necessary to address comprehensive analyses of the terminal facilities for solid biomass operations.
Jeffrey R. Hill, PE, senior engineer, Hayward Baker Inc, discusses a variety of ground improvement and specialty foundation solutions that can support bulkheads, heavy storage warehouses, grain silos, large-diameter tanks or any other port structure. These solutions are designed to efficiently provide a foundation-related maintenance-free operation for the design life of the structure, and are well-suited to the poor ground conditions often associated with port and shipping facilities.
The Port of Hamburg is the backbone of the economy in Hamburg. It provides employment, income security and growth in the region and is said to be the proverbial gateway to the world. To make this gateway greener and more prosperous is a challenge the Hamburg Port Authority (HPA) is happy to face.
The Port of Fujairah was built in the early 1980s as part of the economic development of the United Arab Emirates. Fujairah is situated on the East Coast, just outside the Strait of Hormuz, and with its port being a secure portal to the Gulf; it has seen steady growth over the years.
As terminal operators and providers of maritime supply chain solutions to the bulk industry, Euroports is not only uniquely positioned to evaluate market and trade tendencies in the fertilisers and minerals bulk market but also perfectly organised to offer answers to the industries’ ever-changing supply chain requirements.
Drewry’s latest analysis of the global container terminal sector shows that it remains dynamic and profitable, but that numerous challenges are looming.
High definition (HD) and megapixel (MP) cameras were introduced onto the market and the question arose: Which are more suitable for professional video surveillance of ports, HD or megapixel cameras? But since then, even that discussion is already outdated. A new technology, known as multifocal sensor technology, has taken the market by storm and is paving the way for a whole range of previously inconceivable surveillance and analysis capabilities.
As with all things injurious, prevention is far simpler and much cheaper than treatment and cure. Unfortunately for CEOs and boards, who are always mindful of costs, that fact may only become obvious with hindsight. In addition, company executives and managers are increasingly considered to be criminally liable for negligence on the part of their companies. Events are statistically inevitable. Yet our experience at Bronzeye Group is that our advice and training is often sought in response to an event rather than to help plan and prepare for such a probability.
Transnet National Ports Authority (TNPA) has initiated an extensive upgrade of the infrastructure at the port. One of the major projects is to rebuild and deepen seven of the 15 berths in the Maydon Wharf area. The new quays will be able to accommodate larger vessels and provide suitable load-carrying capacity for the handling of cargos over the berths.
At its 2011 conference in Busan, the International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH) identified the need to reduce toxic emissions, improve air quality and provide a platform that could work on long-term solutions to make a substantial difference to the environmental impact of ports.