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Edition 45

Edition 45 looks in-depth at coordinating effective responses to oil spills, how simulation modelling helps terminals plan for the future, and how South African ports are expanding to meet demand.

Papers in this edition:


LNG Berths for open seas: Part 1 Dahej LNG terminal, a case study

PLL had commissioned its 5 MMTPA LNG receiving andre-gasification terminal (the first in the country) at Dahej – Gujarat (built at the cost of approximately US$550 million) in February 2004, and expansion of the same to handle 10 MMTPA LNG was also completed in March 2009, currently at an advanced stage in doubling its capacity. PLL has also commenced the construction work for its second LNG receiving and re-gasification terminal (2.5 MMTPA expandable to 5 MMTPA) at Kochi, Kerala in Feb 2008.

Performance improvement of liquid bulk terminals

Imagine you are a terminal manager with plans to expand your tank storage capacity. You already know that your plans will increase throughput, resulting in unacceptably high berth occupancies of 85 per cent. You would like to invest in new pumps and berths, but your board asked you to prove that these investments will be effective. They would like to get an idea of how your existing infrastructure is performing compared to industry peers and whether improvements are possible. You are looking for a Key Performance Indicator (KPI) to provide these answers.

The next step in radiation monitoring for ports

The potential for illicit transit of nuclear weapons and radiological materials that could be used to create a ‘dirty bomb’ not only looms large on the global political landscape, but also for the commercial ports on the frontlines of defense.

Efficient handling of cement in marine export terminals

Cement and clinker trade faces a downward trend, due to the economic crisis and because of the recent investment boom in the cement industry, with new production capacities in former import countries and corresponding lower imports.

Building the tower of Basel

At the site where, up to now, Ultra-Brag AG unloaded ships and warehoused goods in the Rhine port of Basel, Novartis plans to realize its campus idea. As a replacement for its existing installations, Ultra-Brag has therefore moved to the port of Kleinhüningen, where it has constructed an 83 meter tall bulk storage elevator, and to the Muttenzer Auhafen port, where it has built a huge flat store.

US Refinery expansion employs new ship loader design

As part of the efforts to increase refinery capacity in the US, Total Petrochemicals is in the process of expanding the production capacity of their Port Arthur, Texas, refinery. This US$2.2 billion dollar project will increase production by approximately 30 per cent. A new coke export terminal, developed by the TGS Development Group of Houston, Texas, will be included in the expansion, and operated by the Kinder Morgan Terminal Group.

Meeting the demands for tailor-made dust-free loading chute solutions

The recurrent problem of dust creation is a key issue when handling bulk materials, as it constitutes a severe risk on health, safety and environment. Increased focus on these matters, combined with strengthened regulations, has resulted in enhanced need for dust handling equipment.

Liebherr mobile harbour cranes in the global market

In a highly volatile business environment, Liebherr’s mobile harbour crane (MHC) division delivered satisfactory operational performance. In 2009, deliveries amounted to 74 mobile harbour cranes, 27 per cent less than during the same period the previous year. In comparison, the total MHC market, including all manufacturers, dropped by approximately 40 per cent.

Faster, green snag load protection

Snag loads on container cranes happen fast. Your snag load protection must be faster to prevent damage; easy to reset to save time and as green as possible to avoid spills.

Striving for best practice throughout the ports industry

PEMA provides a forum and a public voice for the global port equipment sector, reflecting the industry’s critical role in enabling safe, secure, sustainable and productive ports; and thereby actively supporting international maritime trade.

An analysis of integrative AGV and ASC dispatching by means of simulation

In designing container terminals, the terminal management has to consider the choice for interrelated AGV and ASC dispatching rules. In this paper, we therefore examine the joint decision problem of dispatching containers to AGVs and selecting ASCs. Savings of approximately 20 per cent in the number of AGVs are achievable, if we apply the nearest-AGVfirst rule in combination with the cyclic ASC rule. Twin-load AGVs can also be used to obtain significant savings in unloading times and number of AGVs required.

Simulation modeling helps oil producer plan for the future

The results of simulation modeling have been applied successfully for over a decade to help petroleum companies meet their long-term strategic production goals. Simulation modeling has been used to optimize storage, pipelines, and the export facilities required to accommodate additional production capacity; to plan capital projects in anticipation of demand; and to evaluate the impact of crude segregation alternatives on future facility requirements.

The future of terminal automation technology

The maritime industry has perhaps been slower than most to embrace container terminal automation, however, confidence inautomation technology is now at its highest level ever and the development of automated terminals is quickly approaching the point where the rush is about to begin.

Increased STS productivity with dual hoist automation

Automation can increase the overall productivity of a quay crane and raise almost all drivers to a high production level. For dual hoist cranes, this is even more true. The theoretical advantage of a dual hoist crane over a single hoist crane is substantial, but in everyday operation those fantastic numbers have been difficult to achieve. Due to the complexity of the dual hoist system, operation has often been slow. The difficult landings and pickups in combination with complex crane handling easily make the seconds slip away. With a production rate that may be close to that of a single hoist crane, the extra investment cost can hardly be justified.

Identifying loss prevention focus

With over 400 ports and terminals globally, the TT Club is one of the best-placed insurers to have data to analyze and provide advice on claim trends and loss prevention actions. Laurence Jones, the Director Global Risk Assessment for the TT Club, says the Club has analysed over 2,000 asset damage claims over the last four years. According to the report, the main causes of incidents highlighted in previous studies have not changed.

Capacity creation is the top priority in South African ports

Nowhere in South Africa is the rapid upsurge in economic activity and growth more evident than in its commercial ports. Historically neglected and under-funded prior to 1994, during the country’s economic sanctions and apartheid era, South Africa’s ports have since been experiencing booming business, and stateowned transport and freight entity Transnet Limited has been at pains to ensure it creates capacity ahead of demand in its busy terminals.

Sheet piling interlock sealants in port construction applications

Over thousands of years, dating back to the port construction of Amathus in southern Cyprus, man has waged mostly losing battles on the effects of water infiltration on large-scale port construction projects. Until recently, many port designers seemedresigned that a certain amount of water infiltration through retaining structures was an inevitable reality.

Strainstall Rugged Footswitch

Strainstall UK Limited has extensive experience in the design, manufacture and installation of sensors and instrumentation systems for oil, gas and ore terminals, both on and offshore, for over 40 years. The founding of the company in the 1960s coincided with the development of both instrumentation for onshore oil terminals, and the offshore industry in the North Sea. Since then, they have strived to meet their clients’ specific requirements and measurement problems.

Maximizing the useful life of rubber marine fenders

Over the last fifteen years, the production of rubber marine fenders has moved from the manufacturers that developed them to lower-cost producers, with no heritage knowledge of the products they currently make. This has created a disjoint between the manufacturers and the people that design and sell the end products. There was precious little transfer of any of the ‘black art’ of fender element molding when the components were outsourced. Complicating matters, there are no true standards governing the ‘nuts and bolts’ of fender design. There is little to assist in the design of cost-effective fenders. Furthermore, there is little understanding of neither what actually causes fenders to fail, nor how buyers can optimize their fender lifetimes. This article seeks to change that.

Rapid design and construction of sheet piling weir protects Florida water control structure

Extended drought conditions in the southeastern portion of the United States caused Lake Okeechobee to fall to historically low levels. This resulted in potentially large head to tailwater differences at water control structures operated by the South Florida Water Management District (District). Heavy flows of water, such as those caused by a hurricane, could undermine the existing structures and threaten their stability. The District elected to construct weirs downstream of three water control structures in order to eliminate the threat. An emergency authorization of $25 million was allocated for the protective measures.

New requirements demand new solutions in maritime navigation systems

In Vessel Traffic Management and Coastal Surveillance systems, radar is considered the key sensor in enhancing safety and efficiency, providing environmental protection and meeting the ever-growing need for security. Kelvin Hughes, with its established history as a supplier of maritime navigation radar and navigation systems, has developed a family of solid-state radar sensors, SharpEye™, with performance and reliability that allows entry to markets previously seen as the territory of the specialist radar suppliers.

When is a VTS not a VTS? Part 2

The Dover Straits has a worldwide reputation for being one of the busiest waterways in the world. The Dover StraitTraffic Separation Scheme (TSS) developed out of a series of experiments begun in 1967 but it was not until 1971, after a series of accidents, that the authorities were galvanised into action, taken through the IMO, resulting in its official formation. The scheme was the first to be set up in the world under radar surveillance. It was also the first to be adopted by the IMO and coincided with the revised COLREGS of 1972, which includes Rule 10. The adoption was not finalised until 1977. Since then many other TSS in various Straits around the world have been adopted by IMO.

Port of San Diego takes its role as environmental steward seriously

As the environmental steward for San Diego Bay, the Port of San Diego plays a significant role in the conservation of natural resources and is a leader on environmental issues in the region. San Diego Bay is a 12-mile long natural bay in southern California, providing important salt marsh and tidal flats, bird nesting and foraging sites, and essential fish habitats such as eelgrass beds for species along the bay.

Spilling oil deliberately: the trial results

Last month, the 807ft tanker Eagle Otome collided with a barge at Port Arthur, Texas, USA, spilling over 450,000 gallons of crude oil. On 31st July 2009, the 167m bulk carrier Full City ran aground off southern Norway. Approximately 212 tonnes of oil emulsions were subsequently recovered from the waters. The damage from an oil spill can economically and environmentally devastate an area for many years. The cost of clean up can be equally horrifying. Statoil of Norway takes this issue seriously and has reviewed Oil Spill Detection (OSD) products from a number of suppliers. In December 2009, VisSim AS of Norway participated in trials conducted by Statoil, with the objective of assessing the longrange detection potential of radar-based OSD products. This article provides an overview of VisSim’s results in these tests.

Mooring – getting it right

Mooring accidents can be horrific and insurance companies are increasingly concerned to reduce their incidence, as are those operating ships and ports. The act of mooring brings together theship, which is designed to move, and the shore – which is not. New books from The Nautical Institute can help ports to understand the issues ships face when berthing. The Londonbased membership organisation has produced two volumes – Mooring and Anchoring Ships – which set out to explain the principles involved in such operations, to help spread best practice in an area where there are no international standards of operation and few local ones.

Consensus forecasting for oil spill response

In August 2009, the Montara wellhead platform in the Timor Sea suffered a blowout. Oil leaked continuously at the seabed for the next three months. Australia’s national oil spill response plan was activated immediately, triggering the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), an agency of the Australian government, to mobilize. AMSA, supported by the marine modeling company Applied Science Associates (ASA), provided metocean data analysis, integration of remotely-sensed oil observations and oil spill trajectory forecasts on a daily basis.

Environmental impacts from dredging operations

Australia has seen an explosion in port and harbor infrastructure projects due to the country’s growth in ore mining, natural gas development and other exports. Dredging operations and sediment displacement are often necessary for port and harbor development, maintenance and creation of shipping channels, and offshore infrastructure projects.

Oil spill mapping with a portable multispectral aerial system

Accurate knowledge of the spatial extents and thickness distributions of an at-sea oil spill is of utmost importance for efficient response. The need to know the locations of the spilled oil is obvious. Just as important, however, is knowledge of the oil film’s thickness variations. This is because most petroleum products spread rapidly on the water surface when released into the ocean, with the majority of the affected area becoming covered by very thin sheens. Although the sheens may ultimately affect very large regions, the total amount of oil they contain is small compared to areas covered by thicker oil accumulations. In an efficient spill response, available recovery resources such as booms and skimmers must be directed to the thicker portions of the oil slick.