Research into LNG as a marine fuel saw a strong growth in recent years, but no study has analysed in a structured way, the level of convergence among the findings presented in the wide range of studies conducted by research centres, classification societies, ship engine manufacturers and consultancy firms. In order to fill this gap, we performed a systematic review to synthesise the findings of 33 published studies on the use of LNG as a ship fuel. The aim is to obtain a much broader understanding of the current perspectives and challenges for applying LNG as a bunker for ship propulsion.
Sheet piles, used as retaining walls, wharfs, and piers, are typically made of unprotected carbon steel (CS). This type is affordable and the general corrosion rate (wastage) is predictable. Despite the long and successful use of CS sheet pilings, there are reports of localised corrosion of CS pilings that have been identified as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) ie. corrosion that is a result of the presence and activities of microorganisms.
Often wharf owners find that they have insufficient crane girder rated capacity and only consider strengthening options. Before proceeding with expensive strengthening, owners should study the capacity of their existing crane girders. For a variety of reasons, crane girders are often stronger than their rated capacity due to early design methods and tools, cautious designers, or both. Using modern methods, engineers can often justify increased girder rated capacities without expensive strengthening upgrades.
In recent years the integration of renewable energy and alternative fuels within the industrial and transport sector has been greatly encouraged. However, despite important efforts, the total share of such greener alternatives remains modest considering the production and consumption energy mix on a European level. José Andrés Giménez, research and development project manager, Valenciaport Foundation discusses the project ‘Green Technologies and Eco - Efficient Alternatives for Cranes and Operations at Port Container Terminals’ (GREENCRANES) which aims to be an innovative action which contributes to the improvement of energy efficiency of port container terminals.
When sea-going vessels slow down to enter port, their rudder effectiveness and manoeuvrability become restricted by the loss of water flow or water speed across their rudder. The paradox of slowing down to enable safe navigation of highrisk areas, while losing effective steering control at the same time is what drives the demand for tugs.
José García de la Guía, port community system manager, Valencia Port, discusses how the main traffic in Valencia Port is containerised cargo (78 percent). There are other types of cargo such as solid bulk, liquid bulk and general cargo, including roll on- roll off (ro-ro) cargo and car traffic. As the result of this growth, Valencia Port has had continuous growth of container traffic in the last two decades and it is now leading Spanish and Mediterranean container ports rankings, 5th in Europe and 30th in the world. Alongside this, José García de la Guía discusses the Valencia's Port Community Approach and how it is leading to better efficiency within the port.
The quest for performance measurement has always been a key issue for ports. Port managers, whether port authorities or terminal operators, need to organise complex processes in an efficient and effective way in order to find the best ways to capture value for their customers and address the concerns of stakeholders. Improved efficiency within ports does not necessarily lead to improved competitiveness, for competitiveness is also a product of effectiveness in delivering desired services to both customers and users. If a terminal operator wishes to improve its cargo-handling efficiency so as to improve berth utilisation through faster vessel turnaround, it may also improve its effectiveness as vessel time at berth decreases and the customer may be more satisfied with the shipping line’s performance. However, if that terminal operator improves its asset utilisation by leaving more vessels at anchor so as to minimise its own downtime, its asset utilisation is improved but the customer’s service expectations may not have been met. In this case, efficiency has come at the expense of effectiveness.
Captain Terry Hughes, FNI FRIN, Founder, International Maritime Consultancy discusses how in September the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) organised their first ever seminar on simulation in vessel traffic service (VTS) training in Wageningen, The Netherlands. The seminar was kindly sponsored by MARIN, NNVO and the Port of Rotterdam and was attended by 50 delegates representing 20 countries. The primary aim of the seminar was to provide guidance to training organisations and their simulation staff in organising and developing VTS simulator training courses. It was intended for, not only those who already have experience, but also for those who have no experience whatsoever in VTS simulation.
There can be little argument that the international cargo handling industry stands on the verge of one of the most significant changes since the advent of containerisation. Until now, cargoes have been shipped based on the container weights declared on the advance booking information provided by shippers. Vessel stowage plans and port operations are typically based on these pre-declared weights which can vary significantly from the actual mass of the cargo transported. The consequent risk to the health and safety of seafarers and port operatives is clearly apparent.
A rising tide lifts all boats, but if some of them have short anchor chains they will eventually sink as the water continues to rise. Latin American economies have benefitted significantly from strong economic growth in Asia, driven primarily by China. Those who have been able to develop infrastructure to support freight movement have benefitted more than others. However, further investment and development is needed, particularly in Brazil which has lagged behind other countries in terms of infrastructure and benefitting from growth in global trade. Ports will have to be able to handle larger ships and inland connectivity needs to improve. If these investments are made then Latin America, like Asia, could potentially see very strong economic growth.